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i See Maitland, Equity, 2nd edition 1936, 23.

 iiDon Quixote, Part 2, chap 23.

iiiLepaulle, Trait¨¦ Th¨¦orique et Pratique des Trusts, 1932, 114.

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viSee Brownbill (1999) 32 Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law 953, 962; T Choithram International SA v Pagarani [2001] 1 WLR 1, PC. vii Smith v Anderson (1880) 15 ChD 247, 275, 280, 284-85; CCSD v ISPT Pty Ltd (1999) 2 ITELR 1, 15; and see the Hague Convention on Trusts, 1985, art 2, para 2(b) viii Lewin on Trusts, 17th edition 2000, para 1-17; Underhill & Hayton, Law of Trusts and Trustees, 16th ed 2003, 5.

ix ¼û×¢40

x Bristol & West Building Society v Mothew [1998] Ch 1, CA

xi ¼û×¢47.

xii ¼û×¢52

xiii ¼û×¢56µÄ°¸ÀýºÍ×¢57µÄ·¨¹æ

xiv Lupoi, The Development of Protected Trust Structures in Italy, in (ed) Hayton, Extending the Boundaries of Trust and Other Ring-Fenced Funds, 2002, 85.

xv Lepaulle, Les Fonctions du ¡°Trust¡± et les Institutions Equivalentes en Droit Français, 1929. But this idea has now been taken by up Quebec; see Code Civil, Title 6. Chap 2, art 1261.

xvi²Î¼û×÷ÕßµÄÎÄÕ¡°From Obligation to Property and Back Again?¡± in (ed) Hayton, op. cit., 213-16.

xvii Hallows v Lloyd (1888) 39 Ch D 686; Trustee Act 1925, ss 36(7), 43.

xviii Foskett v McKeown [2001] 1 AC 102, HL.

xix±ÈÈç´ÓÒ»·ù¼ÛÖµÁ¬³ÇµÄ¹Å»­±äΪ´æÔÚijÕÊ»§ÖеÄÏÖ½ð¡£xx Re Diplock [1948] Ch 465, Foskett v McKeown [2001] 1 AC 102, HL. xxiLewin on Trusts, 17th ed 2000, Chap 45; Underhill & Hayton, Law of Trusts and Trustees, 16th ed 2003, Chap 16.

xxiiͬÉÏpara 5-01.

xxiii See eg Re Burroughs-Fowler [1916] 2 Ch 251.

xxiv Waters, The Institution of the Trust in Civil and Common Law, in Recueil des Cours de l¡¯Academie de Droit International, 1995, at 320-324.

xxv Buckland, A Textbook of Roman Law, 3rd ed 1963, 431-433; Watkin, An Historical Introduction to Modern Civil Law, 1999, 267-269.

xxvi mandate (Harrison v Credit Suisse, RO 96 II 79 (1970): Swiss court; many French decisions, cited by B¨¦raudo, Les trusts anglo-saxons et le droit francais, 198-203); fiduciary contracts (see the Spanish decisions cited by Camara, Trusts in Spanish Law, in Trust v Fiducie in a business context, 1998); Treuhand (Grundmann, (1999) 47 Am. Jo. Comp. L. 401).

xxvii Called "cause" or "causa"; see eg. the French Code Civil, arts 1131-1133, the Italian Codice Civil, arts 1323, 1343-45, the Spanish C¨®digo Civil, arts 1274-1277.

xxviiiCode Civil, art 1121; Codice Civile, arts 1411-1413; C¨®digo Civil, art 1257.

xxix Code Civil, arts 1136-1141; Codice Civile, art 769; Ferchal v Ferchal 1990 JLR 117; the cause is the motive of benefitting the intended owner: Cass Civ 1, 6 Oct 1959, D 1960, 515, note Malaurie; Torrente & Schlesinger, Manuale di Diritto Privato, 16th ed 1999, para 592. Cf C¨®digo Civil, arts 618, 622, 626.

xxx Art 1(2)(g),ÅųýÁËÐÅÍеÄÊÊÓÃxxxi Art 5(6), ¸ÃÌõÈÏΪίÍÐÈË¿ÉÒÔÔÚÓëÐÅÍÐÓйصÄËßËÏÖгÉΪ±»¸æ¡£

xxxii ͬÉÏ×¢31

xxxiii Re Birchall (1889) 40 ChD 436.

xxxiv Roywest Trust Corporation (Bahamas) Ltd v Savannah NV (1987) 1 BOCM 61, 79-80; Armitage v Nurse [1998] Ch 241, 254.

xxxv Goodhart [1980] Conv 333; Kenny (1982) 126 Sol Jo 631, 631; cf Re Duke of Norfolk's Settlement Trusts [1982] Ch 61, 76F, 77A.

xxxvi R v OPRA, ex p Littlewoods Pension Trust Ltd [1998] PLR 63, 67, 68; Unifi v Union Bank of Nigeria plc [2001] PLR 237, 245; cf Air Jamaica Ltd v Charlton [1999] 1 WLR 1399, 1407, Ôڸð¸ÖÐMillett ·¨¹Ù˵µ½"Õâ²¢²»Òâζ×ÅÑøÀϽðÊÜÒæÈ˶ÔÑøÀϽðÓкÏͬÉϵÄȨÀû"¡£

xxxviiSee the Brussels (1968) and Lugano (1988) Conventions on Jurisdiction and the Enforcement of Judgments, Art 17(2); Council Regulation (EU) No 44 of 2001 (22 December 2000), art 23(4); the Trusts (Guernsey) Law, 1989, s 4(b)(iii).

xxxviii EMM Capricorn Trustees Ltd v Compass Trustees Ltd 2001 JLR 205, R Ct Jsy; Koonmen v Bender, 14 November 2002, Jsy CA.

xxxix Eg Langbein (1995) 105 Yale LJ 625. xl Jones, in (eds) Helmholz and Zimmerman, Itinera Fiduciae,1998, 192-196; see also Parkinson (2002) 61 CLJ 657, 681 and cf Langbein (1995) 105 Yale LJ 625. xli Anon (1464) Baker & Milsom, Sources of English Legal History , 1986, 96; Anon (1502) Keil 42, pl 17; Holdsworth, History of English Law, 4vol, 415-6; Milsom, op cit, 206, 208; Baker < An Introduction to English Legal History,4th edition 2002, 248-50.

xlii ÕâÀïµÄµÚÈýÈËÖ¸ÊÜÒæÈË¡£

xliii¹ØÓڱȽϷ¨µÄÌÖÂÛ¼ûAlpa & Fusaro (eds), Effetti del contratto nei confronti dei terzi, 2000.

xliv Contracts (Rights of Third Parties) Act 1999. ¸ù¾Ý¸Ä¸ïºóµÄÓ¢¹úºÏͬ·¨£¬ÒѾ­¿ÉÒÔʵÏÖÊÚÓèµÚÈý·½Ç¿ÖÆÖ´ÐеÄÀûÒæµÄÄ¿µÄ¡£

xlv Finlay, Contracts for the Benefit of Third Persons, 1939; though see also Ames (1908) 21 Harv LR 737 in relation to early actions by third party beneficiaries on bailments.

xlviLangbein (1995) 105 Yale LJ 625 at 672-675.

xlvii Rye v Rye [1962] AC 496, HL; cf Ingram v IRC [2000] 1 AC 293, HL.

xlviii Maitland, ¡¶ÐÅÍк͹«Ë¾ÎÄÑ¡¡·, 1936, 165; Re Astor's ST [1952] Ch 534, 542; Bradshaw v University College of Wales [1988] 1 WLR 190, 194; Re Murphy's Settlements [1999] 1 WLR 282, 295.

xlix Goulding v James [1997] 2 All ER 239, CA..ÔÚÃÀ¹úµÄºÜ¶àµØ·½ÕâÊDz»¿ÉÄܵġ£

lGoulding v James [1997] 2 All ER 239, CA.

li Hongkong Fir Shipping Co Ltd v Kawasaki Kisen Kaisha Ltd [1962] 2 QB 26; Suisse Atlantique Soci¨¦t¨¦ d'Armement SA v NV Kolen Centrale [1967] 1 AC 361.

lii Saunders v Vautier (1871) Cr. & Ph 240; Re Smith [1928] Ch 915; Stephenson v Barclays Bank Trust Co Ltd [1975] 1 WLR 882. ÕâÏîÔ­ÔòÔÚÃÀ¹úµÄºÜ¶à²¿·Ö¶¼²»ÊÊÓá£

liii Re Pooley (1888) 40 ChD 1; Re Thorley [1891] 2 Ch 613; Re White [1898] 2 Ch 217; Re Brown [1918] WN 118; Re Duke of Norfolk's ST [1982] Ch 61, 77-78; Galmerrow Securities Ltd v National Westminster Bank plc (1993) 14 TLI 158, 179; ¡¶2000ÄêÊÜÍÐÈË·¨°¸¡·µÚËIJ¿·Ö²¢ÎªÓ°Ïìµ½¸ÃÔ­Ôò,¸Ã²¿·Ö¹æ¶¨ÊÜÍÐÈ˵ı¨³ê³ö×ÔÐÅÍвƲú,ËûÃÇÎÞȨҪÇóÊÜÒæÈËÖ§¸¶±¨³ê¡£

liv Octavo Investments v Knight (1979) 144 CLR 360; Cssr for Stamp Duties v Buckle (1998) 72 ALJR 242.

lv the Law Reform (Frustrated Contracts) Act 1943; Unfair Contract Terms Act 1977.

lvi Re Morgan (1881) 18 ChD 93, 99, 101; Jennings v Mather [1901] 1 KB 108, [1902] 1 KB 1, CA.

lvii Insolvency Act 1986, s 283(3)(a).

lviii Barclays Bank Ltd v Quistclose Investments Ltd [1970] AC 567, HL; see also Gosper v Sawyer (1985) 160 CLR 548, 568-69, and Associated Alloys Pty Ltd v ACN001 452 106 Pty Ltd (2000) 202 CLR 588, 603.

lixDuckworth, Trusts & Trustees, February 2001, 9, 15.

lx Lupoi, Trusts ¨C A Comparative Study, 2000, 183; Hayton (2001) 117 LQR 96, 107.

lxiCo Litt 272b; the (Indian) Trusts Act 1882, s 3, and the (Sri Lankan) Trusts Ordinance 1918, s 3.

lxiiHoldsworth, History of English Law, vol 4, 3rd ed 1945, 415; Simpson, An Introduction to the History of Land Law, 1961, 163.

lxiii Milsom, op cit, 211-2; Baker, An Introduction to English Legal History, 4th ed 2002, 250; Biancalana in Itinera Fiduciae.

lxiv¼û×¢41

lxvMaitland: Equity, 2nd ed 1936, 29.

lxvi Helmholz : (1979) 79 Col LR 1503, and in Itinera Fiduciae, 153-172.

lxvii ¹ØÓÚ "conscience¡± ÔÚÓ¢¹ú·¨ÂÉÖеĽâÊͼûSwadling, in (eds) Birks and Rose, Lessons of the Swaps Litigation, 2000, 258-9.

lxviii Burgess v Wheate (1759) 1 Wm Bl 123, 1 Eden 177; Pilcher v Rawlins (1872) LR 7 Ch App 259; Re Lashmar [1891] 1 Ch 258; Maitland, Equity, 2nd ed 1936, 111-116.

lxix Westdeutche Landesbank v Islington London Borough Council [1996] AC 669 at 705; R v Chester Legal Aid Office ex p Floods Ltd [1998] 1 WLR 1496 at 1500; see also BCCI v Akindele [2001] Ch 437.

lxx Smith, in (eds) Birks & Pretto, Breach of Trust, 2002, 111.

lxxi ²Î¼û×÷ÕßµÄÎÄÕ¡°From Obligation to Property and Back Again?¡± p 203, (ed) David Hayton, Extending the Boundaries of Trusts and Similar Ring-Fenced Funds,1sted 2002

lxxii Ayerst v C & K (Construction) Ltd [1976] AC 167, 177, per Lord Diplock (a famous commercial lawyer); see also Parkinson (2002) 61 CLJ 657, 659, and cases there cited. lxxiii Law of Property Act 1925, s 1(3).

lxxiv Maitland, Equity, 2nd ed 1936, 106; Hanbury (1928) 44 LQR 468; Lupoi, op cit, 183-193. lxxv Jones in Itinera Fiduciae, 190, citing McLelland J in Re Transphere Pty Ltd (1986) 5 NSWLR 309, 311.

lxxvi Travers, Rev Dr Int Pr, 1907, 521; Lion, Cl 1923, 677; Weiser, Trusts on the Continent of Europe, 1936, 7-8; Verhagen and Th¨¦venoz, in (ed) Hayton, Extending the Boundaries of Trusts and Similar Ring-Fenced Funds, 2002, at 102 and 120, respectively; see also Bolg¨¢r, Why no trusts in the civil law? (1953) 2 Am Jo Comp Law 204. lxxviiCamara, op. cit. lxxviii Zweigert and Kötz, An Introduction to Comparative Law, 3rd ed 1998, Chap 34.

lxxix [1994] ECR 1-1717; [1994] QB 696; Ashurst v Pollard [2001] 2 All ER 75, CA; see also Lupoi, op cit, 193-5.

lxxx Right in remÊÇÓ¢ÎĶÔ×î³õµÄ˵·¨µÄ·­Òë¡£ÆäËûµÄÓïÑÔ²¢²»Ê¹Óøôʣ¬¶øʹÓÃreal right £¬µ«ÊÇÕâ¸ö´ÊÔÚÓ¢ÓïÖв¢Ã»ÓÐʵ¼ÊµÄÒâÒå¡£
lxxxi ÓÉÓÚÆÕͨ·¨·¨Ôº²¢²»³ÐÈÏÐÅÍУ¬Òò´Ë£¬µ±ÊÜÍÐÈËÎ¥·´ÐÅÍÐʱ£¬ÊÜÒæÈË×îÔç¾Í²»µÃ²»Ñ°Çó¹úÍõµÄ°ïÖú¡£ÊÜÒæÈ˵ÄÀíÓÉÊÇÊÜÍÐÈ˵Ä×ö·¨ÊDz»¹«Æ½µÄºÍ´íÎóµÄ¡£µ«ÊǹúÍõ·¨Ôº(ÆÕͨ·¨Ôº)²¢²»Òò´Ë¸øÓèËûÃÇÈκξȼá£ÄÇЩÔÚÆÕͨ·¨ÔºÊäÁ˹Ù˾µÄÊÜÒæÈ˱㲻¶ÏµØÏò¹úÍõ±¾È˱§Ô¹£¬ËûÃÇ˵·¨Ôº¶ÔËûÃDz»¹«Æ½¡£ÓÉÓÚ¹úÍõ²»¿ÉÄÜÇ××Ô´¦ÀíËùÓеݸ¼þ£¬Ëû±ãÈÃÒ»¸öÖØÒªµÄ´ó³¼(Chancellor)À´´¦Àí¡£ÔÚÄǸöʱºò(Ê®ËÄÊÀ¼Í)£¬ ChancellorÍùÍùÊÇÓÉÉíΪÖ÷½ÌµÄÉñÖ°ÈËÔ±µ£Èεġ£¹úÍõÈÃËûÀ´´¦ÀíµÄÔ­ÒòÔÚÓÚ£¬ËûÄܹ»ÔËÓÃ×ڽ̵ÄѧʶÀ´Åжϴ¦ÀíµÄ½á¹ûÊÇ·ñ²»¹«Æ½ºÍ²»¹«Õý¡£Ò»¸ö¸ßÉеÄÈ˲»½öÓ¦¸Ã×ñÊØ·¨ÂÉ£¬Ëû¸üÓ¦¸Ã×ñÊØÒ»ÖÖ¸ü¸ßµÄÐÐΪ±ê×¼£¬¼´ÓÉÉϵÛÉ趨µÄÐÐΪ±ê×¼¡£ÕâÖÖ¸ü¸ßµÄÐÐΪ±ê×¼ÓÐʱҲ±»³ÆΪ¾ßÓС°ºÃµÄÁ¼Öª(good conscience)¡±¡£¶ø¹úÍõµÄÕâ¸ö´ó³¼ÓÖ±»³ÆΪ¹úÍõµÄÁ¼ÖªµÄÊØ»¤Õߣ¬ËûΪ¹úÍõ½âÊÍÉϵ۵ķ¨ÂÉ¡£Òò´ËÔÚ¾ö¶¨ÊÜÍÐÈËÊÇ·ñ´íÎóºÍ²»¹«Æ½µØÐÐʵÄʱºò£¬ËûûÓбØÒª¿¼ÂǹúÍõÖƶ©µÄ·¨ÂÉ¡£ËûÒÔËûµÄ×ڽ̱³¾°À´ÅжÏÊÜÍÐÈËÊÇ·ñÒÔÒ»¸öºÃµÄºÍ³ÏʵµÄ»ù¶½½ÌͽµÄÐÐΪ׼ÔòÐÐÊ¡£Èç¹ûÊÜÍÐÈËÃ÷֪ȴûÓÐÈç´ËÐÐÊ£¬Ëû¾Í»á±»ÈÏΪΥ±³ÁËÁ¼Öª(against conscience)¡£±ÈÈ磬Èç¹ûÊÜÍÐÈËÖªµÀ(1)ËûÐíŵÁËҪȥ×öijÊÂÇÒ(2)¶Ô·½ÔÚijЩ·½ÃæÒÀÀµÁËËûµÄÐíŵ£¬¶øËûÊÂʵÉÏûÓжÒÏÖËûµÄÐíŵ£¬Ëû¾Í»á±»ÈÏΪÊÇÎ¥±³ÁËÁ¼Öª(conscience was affected)¡£ÕâÒâζÕâËûÓÐÒåÎñ°´ÕÕËûµÄÐíŵÐÐÊÂ

lxxxiiMaitland, Trust and Corporation, in Selected Essays, 1936, 166. lxxxiii Holdsworth, History of English Law, vol 4, 3rd ed 1945, 432; Simpson, op cit, 169. lxxxiv Holdsworth, History of English Law, vol 4, 3rd ed 1945, 432; Simpson, op cit, 170.

lxxxv Maitland, Equity, 2nd ed, 1936, 112-113; Baker, op cit, 251. lxxxviPilcher v Rawlins (1872) LR 7 Ch App 259

lxxxvii Lumley v Gye (1853) 3 Bl & Bl 216; Rookes v Barnard [1964] AC 1129, HL. See also Gardner (1982) 98 LQR 290.

lxxxviii the ÔÚÂÞÂí·¨Öб»³ÆΪactio pauliana. ´ËÖÖ·½·¨ÔÚÒÔÏ·¨ÂÉÖж¼ÓÐÌåÏÖ: Japanese Trust Law of 1922, art 31, the Taiwanese Trust Law of 1996, art 18, and the Chinese Trust Law of 2001, art 22.

lxxxix Schultze, Die langobardische Treuhand und ihre Umbildung zur Testamentsrollstreckung, 1895, 76-88; Schlosser NJW, 1970, 681 at 684.

xc Maitland, Trust and Corporation, in Selected Essays, 1936, 171; Equity, 2nd ed 1936, 29, 32-33; cf Smith, in (eds) Birks & Pretto, Breach of Trust, 2002, 111.

xci Sanders, Uses and Trusts, 5th ed 1844, 65.

xcii Baker, op cit, 309-11; Macnair in Itinera Fiduciae, 207, 221-4. Sanders, Uses and Trusts, 5th ed 1844, 65.

xciii Watkin, An Historical Introduction to the Civil Law, 1999, 225. Baker, op cit, 309-11; Macnair in Itinera Fiduciae, 207, 221-4. xciv Buckland, A Textbook of Roman Law, 3rd ed 1963, 187; Thomas, Textbook of Roman Law, 134-135. xcv Dalhuisen (2001) 5 Edin LR 1, 9-17.

xcvi Watkin, op cit, 227. xcvii ͬÉÏ,228 xcviii French Code Civil, Art 544; Italian Codice Civile, Art 832; Spanish C¨®digo Civil, art 348; German BGB, Art 903; Dutch Civil Code, Art 5.1.

xcix Weill, Terr¨¦, Simmler, Droit Civil - Les Biens, 3rd ed, 77. c ¼û×¢10

ci National Provincial Bank v Ainsworth [1965] AC 1175, 1247-48.

cii Gray and Gray, Elements of Land Law, 3rd ed 2001, para 2.11.

ciii Holdsworth, History of English Law, vol 4, 1945, 433-434.

civ Wilson & Duncan, Trusts, Trustees and Executors, 2nd ed 1995, para 10.01; Thomson, The Role of Equity in Scots Law, in (ed) Goldstein, Equity and Contemporary Legal Developments, 1992, 911, 915-6; Reid, in (eds) Hayton and others, Principles of European Trust Law, 1999, 69-72.

cv ÊÜÒæÈË¿ÉÒÔÒªÇó¹é»¹ÊÜÍÐÈËÎ¥±³ÐÅÍÐÎÞ³¥×ªÈõIJƲú: Taylor v Forbes (1830) 4 W&S 444; Bertram Gardner & Co's Trustee v King's Remembrancer 1920 SC 555, 562; µ«ÊÇËûÎÞ·¨ÏòÉÆÒâµÄÖ§¸¶Á˶Լ۵IJ»ÖªÇéµÄÂòÊÜÈËÌá³öÕâÑùµÄÒªÇó: Redfearn v Somervail (1813) 1 Dow's App 50; Burns v Lawrie's Trustees (1840) 2 D 1348; Thomson v Clydesdale Bank Ltd (1893) 20 R (HL) 59; Hastie's Judicial Factor v Morham's Exors 1951 SC 668, 676. ËÕ¸ñÀ¼µÄÐÅÍз¨ÉÆÒâÂòÊÜÈ˵ĵØλÔø¾­ÓëÓ¢¹úÐÅÍз¨ÊÇÒ»ÑùµÄ(eg Airdrie Magistrates v Smith (1850) 12 D 1222),µ«ÊÇ¡¶1961ÄêËÕ¸ñÀ¼ÐÅÍз¨°¸¡·µÚ¶þÌõ¶Ô´Ë½øÐÐÁËÐ޸ġ£

cvi Rotherham (1998) 18 LS 41.

cvii¼û×¢76

cviii Re Diplock [1948] Ch 465, CA; Ministry of Health v Simpson [1951] AC 251, HL; ËßËÏÒªÒÔÊÜÒæÈ˵ĴúÀíÈ˶ø²»ÊÇÒÔÊÜÒæÈ˵ÄÉí·ÝÌáÆð¡£

cix Commissioner of Stamp Duties (Queensland) v Livingston [1965] AC 694, PC; but it is otherwise in certain casesµ«ÊÇÔÚÆäËûµÄ°¸ÀýµÄÅоöÈ´²»ÊÇÕâÑù, eÈçÓÐÒ»¸ö¾ßÌåµÄÒŲúÊÜÔùÈË(IRC v Hawley [1928] 1 KB 578) ºÍÒ»¸öÊ£ÓàÒŲúÊÜÔùÈË(Williams v Holland [1965] 1 WLR 7)¾Í±»ÈÏΪºÏ·¨µØÓµÓиòƲú¡£

cx See eg Birks, in (eds) Bright and Dewar, Land Law: Themes and Perspectives, 1998, 473; Smith, in (eds) Birks & Pretto, Breach of Trust, 2002, 111

 

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